List of Health Dangers – Anvil, Malathion, Scourge

Government and manufacturer statements of health dangers, suspected health dangers and other indications of the pesticides used in the mass-spraying operations
Anvil

The full name of the product used is Anvil 10 + 10 ULV. It is comprised of four ingredients: sumithrin; piperonyl butoxide; polyethylbenzene, also known as heavy aromatic solvent naptha (petroleum); and “white mineral oil,” also known as hydrotreated light paraffinic petroleum distillate. Each has at least one indication issued by a United States government authority.
Sumithrin
• Suspected gastrointestinal or liver toxicant – U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
• Suspected kidney toxicant – National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances.
• Suspected neurotoxicant – National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances.
• Listed on the Toxic Release Inventory list under the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act.
• No tolerable levels have been established – International Programme on Chemical Safety*/Commission of the European Communities.
• “This product is toxic to fish. For terrestrial uses, do not apply directly to water, or to areas where surface water is present or to intertidal areas below the mean high water mark” – manufacturer’s warning label on the product.
Piperonyl butoxide
• Suspected carcinogen – Environmental Protection Agency Office of Pesticide Programs.
• Suspected gastrointestinal or liver toxicant – National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health’s Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances.
• Suspected neurotoxicant – National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health’s Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances.
• Added to make the sumithrin more effective by inhibiting naturally occurring enzymes that would otherwise degrade the insecticide.
Polyethylbenzene (heavy aromatic solvent naptha (petroleum))
• Listed on Environmental Protection Agency’s Office of Pesticide Programs’ Inert Pesticide Ingredients List No 2, a list of 64 substances the EPA “believes are potentially toxic and should be assessed for effects of concern.”
• Closely related to ethylbenzene, which is listed as a suspected reproductive toxicant and a suspected respiratory toxicant by the EPA.
“White mineral oil” (hydrotreated light paraffinic petroleum distillate)
• Listed on Environmental Protection Agency’s Office of Pesticide Programs’ Inert Pesticide Ingredients List No 2.

Malathion

• Suspected cardiovascular or blood toxicant – National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health.
• Gastrointestinal or Liver Toxicant – National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health.
• Neurotoxicant – Environmental Protection Agency, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health and International Programme on Chemical Safety*/Commission of the European Communities.
• Respiratory Toxicant – National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health.
• Skin or sense organ toxicant – National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health.
• Cholinesterase inhibitor – International Programme on Chemical Safety/Commission of the European Communities.
• Exposure above occupational exposure limit may result in death – International Programme on Chemical Safety*/Commission of the European Communities.
• “By-products can develop in long-stored malathion which strongly inhibit the hepatic enzymes operative in malathion degradation, thus enhancing its toxicity” – Environmental Protection Agency’s Recognition and Management of Pesticide Poisonings, page 37.
• “Malathion upon use may cause cholinesterase inhibition” – manufacturer’s label.
• Toxic to fish, acquatic invertabrates and acquatic life stages of amphibians – manufacturer’s label.

Scourge

The pesticide ingredient of Scourge is resmethrin. Scourge consists of 4.14% resmithrin, 12.42% pipernoyl butoxide and more than 80% polyethylbenzene. Manufactured by AgrEvo, owned by Hoechst and Schering.
• “This product is toxic to fish and birds” – manufacturer’s label.
Resmethrin
• Recognized developmental toxicant – California Proposition 65 list.
• Suspected gastrointestinal or liver toxicant – Environmental Protection Agency.
• Suspected neurotoxicant – Environmental Protection Agency.
• “May be hazardous to the environment; special attention should be given to fish and honey bees” – CDC.
Piperonyl butoxide and Polyethylbenzene
See above.
* A joint project of the United Nations Environment Program, the International Labor Office and the World Health Organization.

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